郭沫若 (1892 - 1978)

原名郭開貞、號尚武,筆名沫若,四川樂山人。

1914年赴日本留學。1918年入九州帝國大學醫科學醫,後棄醫從文。1921年,他與成仿吾、郁達夫等發起建立文學團體「創造社」,同時還出版了他第一部詩集《女神》。1923年回國後,任廣州中山大學文學院院長。1928年,因國民黨政府通緝,逃往日本。他在流亡日本的生活中,從事中國古代史和古文字學的研究。1937年抗日戰爭爆發後回國,從事抗日救亡運動。1941年後,他寫了歷史劇《屈原》、《虎符》、《孔雀膽》等,借古諷今。1944年,他發表《甲申三百年祭》,總結了李自成領導的明末農民起義失敗的歷史經驗。新中國建立後,他歷任中國文聯主席、中央人民政府委員、政務院副總理兼文化教育委員會主任、中國科學院院長兼社會科學部主任等職務。


Guo Moruo (1892 - 1978)

Originally named Guo Kaizhen, also known as Guo Shangwu; with Moruo as pseudonym. Born in Leshan, Sichuan province.

Guo Moruo went to Japan to pursue his studies in 1914. In 1918 he was admitted to the Imperial University in Kyushu, where he majored in medicine. Later he shifted his studies to literature. In 1921, he co-founded the Creation Society with Cheng Fangwu, Yu Dafu and others, and published his first collection of poetry Goddesses. After his return to China in 1923, he was appointed dean of the School of Arts at Guangdong University. In 1928, wanted by the Kuomintang police, he went into exile to Japan, where he conducted research on ancient Chinese history and palaeography. In 1937, after the outbreak of the War of Resistance against Japan, he returned to China and joined in the Anti-Japanese and National Salvation Movement. After 1941, he wrote a number of historical plays including Qu Yuan, The Tiger Talisman, and The Peacock Bladder. Historical in their settings, these plays nonetheless aim to satirize the present social situation. In 1944, he published Jiashen 300-Years Memorial Ceremony, in which he summarized the experience and historical lessons of the peasant uprising led by Li Zicheng in late Ming Dynasty. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, he became a member of the central government and served successive terms in a number of high-level government posts including president of the China Federation of Literary and Art Circles (CFLAC), chairman of the Commission of Culture and Education, vice-premier of the Government Administration Council, president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and director of the Department of Social Sciences at the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

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